Office for National Statistics

GOV.UK

Climate Change
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Mitigation

Primary energy demand is the energy the UK needs for consumption and for operating oil refineries and power stations. This has fallen since 2000. The UKʼs energy mix has shifted away from the use of coal. Coal met 16% of energy demand whilst renewables met only 1% in 2000, and by 2020 coal was meeting 3% and renewable energy 16%, mainly through bioenergy and wind.

Source: Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy

  1. Renewable energy consumption includes Bioenergy and Waste (includes solid renewable sources (wood, straw and waste), a small amount of renewable primary heat sources (solar, geothermal, etc.), liquid biofuels, landfill gas and sewage gas) and Wind, Solar and Hydro (includes natural flow hydro, but excludes generation from pumped storage stations).

  2. Fossil fuels includes Coal, Petroleum and Natural Gas.

  3. These estimates have not been adjusted for temperature or seasonal factors.

In 2020 renewable energy accounted for 16% of the energy consumption. Increased use of renewable energy is one of the key drivers of greenhouse gas emissions reductions and the UK’s climate change mitigation strategy.

Source: Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy

  1. Total energy consumption includes renewable energy.

  2. These estimates have not been adjusted for temperature or seasonal factors.

The use of nuclear energy has declined between 1998 and 2020, with 46% less power from nuclear in 2020 compared to 1998. For the same period there has been a large rise in the consumption of energy from bioenergy and waste, wind, solar and hydro. Energy consumption from bioenergy and waste increased nine fold from 1998 to 2020.

Source: Department for Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy

  1. Low carbon energy consumption includes nuclear and renewable energy (Bioenergy and waste and Wind, solar and hydro)

  2. These estimates have not been adjusted for temperature or seasonal factors